More Resources

Bannuru et al. (2019)

OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee, hip, and polyarticular osteoarthritis. Osteo. Cartl. 27(11).

Binkley et al. (1999)

The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS): scale development, measurement properties, and clinical application. Phys. Ther. 79(4).

Cherian et al. (2015)

Strength and functional improvement using pneumatic brace with extension assist for end-stage knee osteoarthritis: a prospective, randomized trial. J. Arthroplasty. 30(5).

Duncan et al. (2006)

Prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis – it all depends on your point of view. Rheum. 45(6)

Hart et al. (2017)

The prevalence of radiographic and MRI-defined patellofemoral osteoarthritis and structural pathology: a systematic review and meta-analysis. B. J. Sports Med. 51(16).

Heekin & Fokin (2014)

Incidence of bicompartmental osteoarthritis in patients undergoing total and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: is the time ripe for a less radical treatment?. J. Knee Surg. 27(1).

Jevsevar (2013)

Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: evidence-based guideline, 2nd edition. J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 21(9).

McAlindon et al. (2014)

OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteo. Cartl. 22(3).

Messier et al. (2018)

Intentional weight loss in overweight and obese patients with knee osteoarthritis: is more better? Arthritis Care Res. (Hobokin) 70(11).

Tubach et al. (2005)

Evaluation of clinically relevant states in patient reported outcomes in knee and hip osteoarthritis: the patient acceptable symptom state. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 64(1).

Zhang et al. (2008)

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Case Study

Testing by the Canadian Military

Collaboration between Canadian Department of Defence and Spring Loaded Technology

During physical testing in healthy individuals conducted by the Canadian Military, a Spring Loaded knee brace significantly increased physical stamina and endurance 1Spring Loaded Technology. Summary of Physical Performance Improvements Observed in Military Personnel While Wearing the Spring Loaded Knee Orthosis. (2018)..

The following improvements were observed:

  • A 10% improvement in the maximum number of loaded squats
  • A 26% improvement in the maximum number of loaded leg presses
  • No change in heart rate when walking with versus without the TCO.

Figure 1A

Group performance averages for maximal leg press and 45kg squat test with and without the Spring Loaded orthosis.

Figure 1B

Test performance from a single participant with meniscal injury.

Clinical study on Levitation 2 Knee brace at mccaig institute
Improvements were even more pronounced in an individual with a meniscus injury where seven- and ten-fold improvements were observed in the maximum number of squats and leg presses respectively. A summary of these findings has been published as a white paper by Spring Loaded 2Spring Loaded Technology. Summary of Physical Performance Improvements Observed in Military Personnel While Wearing the Levitation Knee Orthosis. (2018). and is available for download on this page. Access to the original report is protected by the military.

Partner Institutions

University of Calgary

Spring Loaded is currently collaborating with researchers at the University of Calgary to understand how the use of the Spring Loaded knee brace influences user-reported outcomes such as pain, knee function, quality of life, physical activity levels and use of medication and other treatments. U of C researchers are also quantifying the potential of Spring Loaded bracing to offload the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral knee compartments.


Mitacs is a national, not-for-profit organization that has designed and delivered research and training programs in Canada for 20 years. Working with 70 universities, 6,000 companies, and both federal and provincial governments, Mitacs builds partnerships that support industrial and social innovation in Canada.

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